To enable an equitable exchange of ideas and practices between teachers in all contexts we’ve pulled together what we consider to be six key principles of effective teaching. This strong base of understanding supports the Professional Development (PD) of both LRTT Fellows and in‐country teachers.

Whether you’re an LRTT Fellow, in‐country Teacher, Partner, or Head Teacher of a School, our teacher development programmes are designed so anyone can take away some valuable learning.


Growth Mindset


Approaching tasks with a growth mindset rather than a fixed mindset helps people to fulfil their potential.


A. Duckworth

Hard work and effort support skill development which leads to results. Effort has more importance than talent.

Daily Mood

H. Ginnot

The personal approach creates the climate in any given circumstance. The ‘daily mood’ makes the weather.


E. Deci & R. Ryan

Extrinsic motivation links to the performance of an activity in order to “attain a separable outcome.” Intrinsic motivation refers to doing an activity for the inherent satisfaction of the activity itself.”

Climate for Learning

Teacher Presence

A. Mehrabian

Expression of communication is greater than word choice alone ‐ 7% word choice, 38% word delivery, 55% facial expressions.

Look and Be Seen

A. Bandura

Children pay attention to people’s behaviour to understand and internalise it. Perception of consequences will determine if children will copy actions or not.

Proactively Manage Student Behaviours

B. Skinner

Behaviour which is reinforced is often repeated. Positive reinforcements have greater returns than negative ones

Repair Relationships

T. Wachtel

Restorative justice is a process involving victims, offenders (and others) to support them in taking responsibility for their actions to reach a resolution.

Preparation for Teaching

End of Unit Planning

J. Bruner

Structuring the teaching of complex information at a simplified level first and re‐visiting at more complex levels later on.

End of Lesson Planning

B. Bloom

Measurable statements that articulate what students should know or do by the lesson’s end & help explain how these feed into a longer sequence of learning.

Quality First Teaching

D. Willingham & D. Daniel

Teaching to common learning characteristics are more effective than focusing on individual differences.

Effective Use of Lesson Aids

K. Graves

Using resources at activity and unit levels to help plan and deliver lessons which meet learners’ needs.

Teaching for Learning

Use of Teacher Talk

L. Vygotsky

Learning occurs through social interaction with a skilful tutor who may model behaviours and/or provide verbal instructions for the child.

Modelling & Demonstration

J. Hollingsworth & S. Ybarra

Delivering lesson content by teachers giving students information or by instructing them on how to do something with that information.

Questioning Student Learning

B. Bloom

Questions ‘check for understanding’, using student responses as data to inform next steps, or ‘develop understanding’, to stretch students’ cognition.

Teacher:Student Talk Ratio

R. Alexander

Teacher encourages students to learn from each other by planning opportunities for them to explore ideas & understanding further through scaffolds including talk.

Assessment for Learning


J. Hattie & H. Timperley, D. Christodoulou

Feedback is among the most common features of successful teaching and learning with twice the average effect of all other schooling effects.

Formative Assessment

D. Willingham

Assessments undertaken which help teach beer is assessment for learning, compared to those undertaken to grade, rank or score, which is assessment of learning.

Using Data as Information

B. Fenton

Collecting and analysing student learning data from assessments is important but only becomes meaningful when combined with effective action.

Responsive Teaching

L. Schulman

Being aware of the overlap between content or pedagogical knowledge which informs how to teach within a particular subject.

Professional Culture

Championing Teacher Profession


Children deserve a champion, an adult who will never give up on them, who understands the power of connection, and insists that they become the best that they can possibly be.

Humility & Integrity

E. Campbell

Considering the values attached to teaching and aligning these with what and how material is taught. Engaging in critical reflection on practices deemed as ‘the norm’.

Development of Self & Others

Betari’s Box

Awareness of how thoughts influence actions, which in turn lead to generation of thoughts & actions in others.

Contribution to School Culture

P. Bambrick‐Santoyo

Culture is not built by motivational speeches or statements of values. It is formed by repeated practice: using every minute of every day to build good habits.